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Fire-Prevention Plan

Fire-Prevention Plan

  1. Purpose

    This plan is designed to reduce the likelihood of a fire through basic fire prevention techniques. The personal safety of each employee of _________________________ is and always will be of primary importance.

  2. General Program Management
    • Responsibility

      The company Safety Officer is _________________________. He/she is solely responsible for all facets of this plan and has full authority to make necessary decisions to ensure success of this plan. This authority includes determining personnel and equipment purchases necessary to implement and operate this plan. The Safety Officer will audit the Fire- Prevention Plan as necessary to ensure its effectiveness.

      As with all of our facility's programs, our employees have the most important role in our Fire-Prevention Plan. The requirements of this role are:

    1. Attend the fire-prevention training sessions,
    2. Remain aware of any potential fire hazards in their work areas, and follow the proper fire-prevention procedures,
    3. Be familiar with any applicable emergency procedures and/or evacuation procedures, and
    4. Practice good housekeeping procedures.
  3. Methods of Compliance
    1. Major Workplace Fire Hazards

      Refer to appendix A for a list of major workplace fire hazards, their proper handling and storage procedures, potential ignition sources {i.e. welding, smoking, and forklifts}, control procedures {i.e. Hot Work Permit, 1910.252}, and the type of fire-control equipment to be utilized.

    2. Maintenance of Fire-Control Equipment

      All fire extinguishers will be visually inspected monthly for signs of deterioration or discharge by _________________________. Annual testing of fire control equipment will be conducted by _________________________. Annual testing of fire control systems {i.e. sprinkler system, Halon system, or etc}, will be conducted by _________________________.

      The following equipment used to detect ignition, control fuel sources, or detect fuel leaks will be maintained by the following employees: ___________________ {i.e. temperature limit switches, flame failure and flashback arrester devices, or similar switches}

    Equipment Maintenance for Fire Prevention Plan

    Name/Position Type of Equipment Schedule of Inspection
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         

    __________________________ is responsible for maintaining fuel sources hazards. {i.e. combustible material, gasoline, flammable liquid storage, etc.}

  4. Housekeeping Procedures

    In our facility, flammable and combustible materials are controlled so that they do not contribute to a fire emergency. Refer to appendix F for general housekeeping procedures. Refer to appendix E for specific housekeeping procedures

  5. Training and Information

    _________________________ is responsible for training all employees covered under this plan. As part of our Fire-Prevention Plan, we train all of our employees under the following circumstances: (See Appendix H)

    1. At the time of initial assignment, and annually thereafter;
    2. Whenever new fire hazards are introduced into their work area; and
    3. For any existing fire hazard when transferred to new work areas.

    Training topics include:

    1. Potential fire hazards in their work area and the proper storage and/or handling procedures.
    2. General housekeeping procedures associated with fire prevention.
    3. Any specific housekeeping procedures for highly combustible or flammable materials in their work area.

    Fire Brigade

    The company safety officer is responsible for the enlistment and training of the authorized Fire Brigade personnel.

    The following list includes the authorized members of the Fire Brigade.

    Personnel List for Fire Brigade

    Name Position
       
       
       
       
       
       
       
       

    Authorized Fire Brigade personnel are trained in the use of fire extinguishers at least annually. Such training includes the identification of the different kinds of fires, the type of extinguisher necessary to fight them, and the proper methods of operation for the extinguisher. Refer to Appendix C for basic fire extinguisher use. Refer to Appendix G for basic fire classification.

  6. Maintenance

    Regular maintenance of heat producing equipment will be conducted by employees and procedures referred to in Appendix B.

  7. Record Keeping

    As an important part of our Fire-Prevention Plan, we keep accurate records of our employees' training and any fire control system testing or inspection. This information is maintained in the _________________________ office.

    Appendix A

    Major Workplace Fire Hazards

    Material/
    Location
    Ignition Sources Handling Proce-
    dures
    Storage Proce-
    dures
    Control Proce-
    dures
    Fire Control Equipment
               
               
               
               
               
               
               
               

    Appendix B

    Heat Producing Equipment Maintenance Procedures

    Equipment Location Name/Position Maintenance Procedures
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

    Appendix C

    Fire-Extinguisher Systems

    (Some facilities have specialized fire suppression systems. They should be included below.)

    Portable fire extinguishers have been called "First Aid Fire Extinguishers." They contain a limited supply of an extinguishing agent that can be hand carried or moved on wheel carts. While portable extinguishers cannot be used as a substitute for fixed systems, they can provide an initial attack against fires.

    In order to express the relative value of portable fire extinguishers, the Underwriters' Laboratories of the United States developed a classification system for fires which has been adopted by the National Fire Protection Association. {See Appendix G for the classification of fires.}

    Knowledge of the correct use of portable fire extinguishers is essential for all personnel likely to be involved in the use of this equipment. Any fire-prevention or fire- protection program that does not include thorough training of personnel in this skill could easily result in a costly and disastrous fire. Not knowing how to properly use portable fire extinguishers may lead to confusion, clumsy application, and ineffective results.

    The following general rules are suggested:

    1. Only reliable fire extinguishers meeting recognized standards and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory should be used.
    2. The correct type of fire extinguisher should be provided for each class of fire that may occur in a particular area.
    3. The extinguisher should be of sufficient size to afford protection against the hazards in the area it is intended to protect.
    4. Fire extinguishers should be located where they will be readily accessible for immediate use.
    5. Fire extinguishers should be regularly inspected and properly maintained. They should be recharged as required and be suitably marked for their appropriate use.
    6. Personnel should know the location of extinguishers and fire alarm boxes in their areas. They should be trained in the steps to take in during an emergency. They should be trained and periodically drilled in the proper, effective use of extinguishers.

    Rules for the use of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher:

    1. Operating principles. This extinguisher consists of a high-pressure cylinder containing liquid carbon dioxide under a pressure of 850 psi. Attached to the cylinder is a siphon tube, valve, and hose with a discharge horn. To operate the extinguisher, direct the horn at the fire and squeeze the handle. This opens the valve and releases the CO2, which expels in the form of snow and gas. Point at base of fire.
    2. Recommended for Class B and C fires.
    3. The size range for this type of extinguisher is from 2 lb. hand cylinders to 100 lb. wheeled carts. A 20 lb. carbon dioxide extinguisher will provide adequate protection for ordinary Class B and Class C hazards in the same area.
    4. Location. The maximum travel distance to a CO2 extinguisher should be no more than 50 ft. for a worker in that area.
    5. Advantages. A 20 lb. CO2 extinguisher will last about 20 seconds, and has a maximum range of 8 ft. and may be shut off at any time.

    Rules for the use of a dry chemical fire extinguisher:

    1. Operating principles. The dry chemical extinguisher consists of a substantially built container holding a charge of dry chemical, which could be either sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate powder, a pressure container or cartridge holding carbon dioxide or nitrogen under pressure, and a discharge nozzle with a shutoff valve. To operate, either open the gas valve or pierce the gas cartridge which activates the extinguisher. The contents are expelled by the gas pressure while the valve is opened. Point at base of fire.
    2. Recommended for Class B and C fires. Certain dry chemical extinguishers also have some effectiveness for Class A and D fires; check their labels to make sure before using or providing them for this use.
    3. Sizes range from 1 lb. to 350 lbs containers on wheeled carts.
    4. Location. The maximum travel distance to a CO2 extinguisher should be no more than 50 ft. for a worker in that area.
    5. Advantages. A 10 lb. dry chemical extinguisher can be substituted for a 20 lb. CO2 extinguisher for ordinary hazardous areas and will meet the requirements for protection of Class B and C fires.

    Appendix D

    Principles of Exit Safety

    Exits:

    Basic exit requirements are at least two ways out of a building or fire area. Exits are measured in units (one unit equals 22 inches), the space required for persons to travel freely single file. A minimum exit width of 2 units (44 inches) should be included in all new structures, and at least 1 1/2 units (33 inches) should be required for all existing structures.

    Exit Doors:

    All doors should swing out with the exit travel. On stairwells and other exits, doors should be used to protect the route from smoke and fire during an emergency. All exit doors in schools, plants cafeterias, and assembly halls having a seating capacity of more than 500 persons should be equipped with panic hardware and should meet the recognized standard requirements.

    Exit Routes:

    Exit routes should be free from obstruction and constructed of noncombustible materials. The safe average rate of personnel through doors and level passageways is 60 per file per minute, and for up and down stairs, 45 persons per minute. The travel distance to exit requirements depends upon the occupancy hazard classification listed below:

    1. In a High Hazard industry, a person must be within 75 feet of an exit.
    2. In an Ordinary Hazard industry with no sprinklers, a person must be within 200 feet of an exit.
    3. In an Ordinary Hazard industry with sprinklers, a person must be within 250 feet of an exit.

    The High Hazard classification is based on buildings with sprinkler systems containing explosives, flammable gases or liquids, or subject to dust explosion or other hazards. Ordinary Hazard classification is for department stores, machine shops, woodworking shops, sheet metal shops, etc. All exit routes should be well lit at all times and in emergencies. The light should be provided, if possible by battery powered emergency lighting or other means, in accordance with the recognized standard 29 CFR 1910.37 (q)(6).

    Exit Signs:

    All exit routes and other escapes should be readily accessible and so arranged that the path of escape is well indicated. Signs showing the direction of travel to exits should be conspicuously posted. Lighted exit signs should be clearly visible at all times and they should be regularly inspected.

    Fire Exit Drills:

    Proper fire drills insure controlled exiting of people and prevent panic. They should be held regularly as a test for evacuation. Order and control are the primary purposes, with speed of evacuation secondary.

    Appendix E

    Specific Housekeeping

    (Each facility has its own specific needs in this area. Below is an example of one area.)

    Flammable Liquids:

    Flammable liquids do not by themselves cause fire, but they are dangerous because of their low flash points and low ignition temperatures. Some common precautions are:

    1. Avoid use of highly flammable liquids, where possible, by substituting a nontoxic and nonflammable or less flammable liquid in their place. A trisodium phosphate solution is an example of a nonflammable solvent of low toxicity. Tetra chlorethylene and perchlorethylene are nonflammable and of low volatility. They are not as toxic as carbon tetrachloride and should be substituted for it.
    2. Keep flammable liquids in closed metal containers or safety cans, never in glass containers.
    3. Limit the amount of flammable liquid in the work area to that needed for one shift.
    4. Provide safe operating procedures, including local exhaust systems, for all processes.
    5. Remove or control all ignition sources, such as static electricity, smoking, and open flames.
    6. Provide for adequate clearances between flammable liquid containers or safety cans and any heat sources.
    7. Provide adequate ventilation for all operations involving the use or storage of flammable liquids.
    8. Store large amounts of flammable liquids in a separate fire resistive building or vault which conforms to the recognized standards. Storage tanks should be properly vented and placed in diked areas, and supported by masonry or poured concrete supports.
    9. Provide suitable gas free testing equipment and personal protective equipment for the safe operating procedures in cleaning and repairing tanks.
    10. Provide for the safe disposal of flammable liquid waste; e.g. by burning the waste at an isolated safe location. Never dump flammable liquid waste into sewers.
    11. Anticipate flammable liquid spills and provide means to control and limit spillage, as well as suitable absorptive material for use in cleaning up spills.
    12. Always use and handle flammable liquids with extreme caution, no matter how familiar they are to you.

    Appendix F

    General Housekeeping

    While accumulations of waste and scrap materials may not specifically cause a fire, they do present an invitation to serve as fuel for a fire. (Below is a list of usual controls.)

    1. Provide a program of adequate disposal of all combustible wastes and rubbish designed specifically for the operations or processes involved.
    2. Provide safe containers for all substances subject to spontaneous heating, also for prompt and regular disposal of their contents.
    3. Store large amounts of wastepaper or combustible waste, which cannot be removed immediately, in fire resistive vaults. If possible, the waste should be baled and a sprinkler system installed in the vault.
    4. Provide for regular inspections of the waste storage area.
    5. Provide a program of internal housekeeping which will prevent any accumulation of waste and which will provide safe, clean work areas.
    6. Use nonflammable cleaning solvents.
    7. Provide a program of external housekeeping to prevent accumulation of waste, brush, or high grass around buildings.

    Appendix G

    Classes, Causes, and Detection of Fires

    Classes:

    The National Fire Protection Association of the United States has four classifications of fires. They are listed below.

    Class "A" Fires. Class "A" fires involve ordinary combustible solids and constitute the greatest bulk of property destroyed by fire annually. This class of fire is sometimes referred to as "surface burning fires." Some examples are; wood, paper, clothing, plastics, wax, etc.

    Class "B" Fires. Class "B" fires involve gases, greases, flammable, and combustible liquids. Some examples are; gasoline, kerosene, alcohol, cooking oil, lubricating oils, etc.

    Class "C" Fires. Class "C" fires involve (or are near) "live" electrical equipment. Some examples are; transformers, electrical junction boxes, switch boxes, electrical wires, electrical motor, etc. A non-conducting extinguishing method must be used on this type of fire, DO NOT USE WATER!

    Class "D" Fires. Class "D" fires involve combustible metals which require special fire tactics and extinguishing agents. Some examples are: magnesium, potassium, powdered aluminum, zinc, sodium, titanium, and others.

    Causes:

    • 19 percent of fires are started by electrical equipment.
    • 14 percent of fires are started by friction of overheated equipment.
    • 12 percent of fires are started by sparks produced when equipment is damaged by metal objects.
    • 9 percent of fires are started by open flames from cutting and welding torches.
    • 8 percent of fires are started by person lighting matches or smoking.
    • 8 percent of fires are started by spontaneous ignition of oily wastes or organic material.
    • 7 percent of fires are started by exposure to hot surfaces such as hot pipes or heaters.
    • 6 percent of fires are started by burning rubbish near the facility.
    • 2 percent of fires are started by static electricity from ungrounded flammable liquid containers.
    • 8 percent of fires are started by other means than listed above.
    • 7 percent of fires are started by unknown reasons.

    Detection:

    Except for explosions and flash fires, most fires start small. In the early stages of a fire, extinguishment would seldom present a problem, but as the fire spreads and gains head way, it may develop into a conflagration. Prompt detection and signaling a fire alarm is of prime importance to warn all persons inside the building to evacuate and to summon firefighters. Early detection with proper procedures usually means early extinguishment, which means minimal losses. A fire detection and alarm system is one of the best investments a facility can make.

    Appendix H

    Fire Brigade Training Form

    Date of Session: ______________ Session Summary (Attached) Yes____No____

    Instructor(s) Qualifications
       
       
       
       
    Employee Signature Employee Job Title