Google Translate

Managing Worker Safety and Health

Managing Worker Safety and Health

The following information was developed by the U.S. Department of Labor (USDOL), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (PSHA), Office of Cooperative Programs to assist employers with their workplace safety programs.

MANAGING WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH explains OSHA's Safety and Health Program Management Guidelines: what they mean and how to implement each of the elements and their components in to a safety and health program appropriate for your worksite.

OSHA does not expect you to implement a complete program all at once. This publication allows you to work on each program component individually if you so choose. We are confident you will be able to develop a worksite safety and health program that protects your employees while conforming to the recommendations of the Guidelines.

As the title suggests, we anticipate that the primary readership of this manual will be business owners and managers, the audience also addressed by the Guidelines. This is not however, a tool for employers exclusively. Employees will find a great deal of information here that will help them become active, informed participants in worksite safety and health. We have, therefore, packaged this document for ease in copying and handling. Do not hesitate to make copies of relevant chapters for the employees we hope will be involved in developing your program. By encouraging employee involvement in your program's design and development, you will reap the benefits of your workers' valuable ideas and their all-important support.

We hope you will begin using this information immediately to develop a safety and health program that protects your employees from injuries and illnesses, reduces workers' compensation costs, improves employee morale, and increases worksite productivity. Worksites across the nation have experiences these kinds of successes by establishing their programs on the principles discussed in MANAGING WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH. These companies believe, as we do in OSHA, that a quality safety and health program is one of the major keys to business survival and individual well-being as we approach the 21st century.

A NOTE FROM OSHA'S ATTORNEYS

The suggestions contained herein for establishing effective safety and health program are intended to convey generalized concepts, proven by experience to be effective in reducing workplace illnesses and injuries. They have been written in the broadest of terms in order to cover a wide range of employments and workplaces. However, before implementing any of these suggestions at your workplace, we recommend that you discuss the specifics of their implementation with your labor-relations attorney or adviser, with particular reference to relevant federal law, state law, and collective bargaining relationships. We are confident that you will find these suggestions to be most helpful in designing an effective, comprehensive and lawful safety and health program that will lead to a reduction in workplace illnesses and injuries.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1 - INTRODUCING OSHA'S SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
    • Introduction
    • The Guidelines
      • Management Leadership and Employee Involvement;
      • Worksite Analysis;
      • Hazard Prevention and Control; and
      • Safety and Health Training.
    • Summary
  • Appendix 1-1 What Difference Does It Make?
  • Appendix 1-2 Using the Bell Formula to Help Determine Your Costs or Savings
  • Chapter 2 - DETERMINING THE DIRECTION OF YOUR PROGRAM: ESTABLISHING POLICY, GOAL, AND OBJECTIVES
    • Introduction
    • Policy
      • The Priority of Safety and Health
      • Communicating Your Policy
    • Goal
      • Numerical Goal
      • Descriptive Goal
    • Objectives
      • Where Are You Now?
      • What Must Be Done to Get from Here to There?
      • Is It Working?
    • Summary,
  • Appendix 2-1 Policy Statement Worksheet
  • Appendix 2-2 Guidelines for Writing Objectives
  • Appendix 2-3 Sample Action Plan
  • Appendix 2-4 Action Planning Grid
  • Chapter 3 - TOP MANAGEMENT LEADERSHIP: SHOWING YOUR COMMITMENT
    • Introduction
    • Getting Out Where You Can Be Seen
      • Informal Action
      • Formal Inspections
    • Being Accessible
      • Informal "Instant" Access
      • The Open Door Policy
      • More Formalized Access
      • The Birthday Lunch
    • Being an Example
      • Following the Rules
      • Setting an Example for Supervisors
    • Taking Charge
      • Chairing the Central Safety and Health Committee
      • Insisting on Accountability
      • Ensuring Safe and Healthful Contract Work
    • Summary
  • Appendix 3-1 Walking the Fine Line
  • Chapter 4 - EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT
    • Introduction
    • Why Should Employees Be Involved?
      • Close Contact with Hazards
      • Value as Problem Solvers
      • Improved Support
      • Value of Group Decisions
      • More Involvement Means Better Work
    • What Can Employees Do to Help?
      • Committee Participation
      • Conducting Site Inspections
      • Routine Hazard Analysis
      • Developing or Revising Site Safety and Health Rules
      • Training Other Employees
      • Program Presentation
      • Accident/Incident Investigations
      • All-Pervasive Participation
    • Different Approaches: Union and Non-Union Sites
      • Unionized Sites
      • Non-Union Sites
    • What Management Must Do
    • Summary
  • Appendix 4-1 Examples of Employee Involvement
  • Appendix 4-2 Getting Employee Involvement Started
  • Chapter 5 - ASSIGNING SAFETY AND HEALTH RESPONSIBILITIES
    • Introduction
    • The Value of Written Job Descriptions
    • Review the Existing Organization
    • Determine the Safety and Health Role of Each Position
    • Determine and Assign Specific Responsibilities
    • Communicate with Your Employees
    • Summary
  • Appendix 5-1 Worksheet: Safety and Health Program Responsibilities
  • Appendix 5-2 Sample Assignments
  • Chapter 6 - DEVELOPING ACCOUNTABILITY
    • Introduction
    • Set a Clear Goal and Assign Responsibilities
    • Set Individual Objectives for Accountability Systems
    • Write Objectives
    • Review Objectives
    • Set Consequences for Failure to Perform Adequately
    • Summary
  • Chapter 7 - ESTABLISHING COMPLETE HAZARD INVENTORIES
    • Introduction
    • Comprehensive Surveys
      • Who Should Do the Survey?
      • Questions To Ask Before Contracting for a Survey
      • How Will You Know the Surveyor Has Done a Thorough Job?
      • Follow-Up Surveys
    • Involving Workers in Establishing the Inventory
    • Change Analysis
      • Before Making Changes in the Worksite, Analyze the Changes To Identify Potential Hazards
      • Building or Leasing a New Facility
      • Installing New equipment
      • Using New Materials
      • Starting up New Processes
      • Analyzing Multiple Changes
      • When People Change
    • Job Hazard Analysis
    • Process Hazard Analysis
      • What Is a "Process" for the Purpose of this Analysis?
      • Who Should Do the Process Hazard Analysis?
      • Overview of the Process
      • Process Flow Chart
      • Hazardous Substances
      • Equipment
      • Worker Exposures
      • Preparing for the Unplanned Event
      • Updating the Process Hazard Analysis
    • Phase Hazard Analysis
    • Using the Inventory of Hazards
    • Summary
  • Appendix 7-1 Process Overview Worksheet
  • Appendix 7-2 Example of a Process Flow Diagram
  • Appendix 7-3 Process Hazard Analysis Worksheet
  • Chapter 8 - ESTABLISHING HAZARD PREVETION AND CONTROL PROGRAMS
    • Introduction
    • The Terminology of Hazard Control
      • Elimination of Hazards through Design
      • Enclosure of Hazards
      • Barriers or Local Ventilation
    • General Workplace Rules and Safe Work Practices
      • Workplace Rules
      • Safe Work Practices
      • Drawbacks to Controlling hazards with Safe Work Practices
      • Safe Work Practices Training
      • Positive Reinforcement
      • Enforcement
    • Administrative Controls
    • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
      • Legal Requirements
      • PPE Drawbacks
      • Bearing the Cost
    • Interim Protection
      • Notations on the Report Form
      • Tracking by Committee
      • Tracking by Separate Form
    • Reward System
    • Role of Disciplinary Systems in the Workplace
      • Policy Statement
      • Employee Information and Training
      • Supervision
      • Employee Involvement
      • Appropriate Control Measures
      • Consistent Enforcement
      • Documentation
    • Preventative Maintenance
      • Scheduling; Maintenance Documentation
    • Emergency Preparation
      • The Nature of Emergencies;
      • Survey of Possible Emergencies;
      • Emergency Planning; and
      • Employee Information and Training.
    • Medical Programs
    • Summary
  • Appendix 8-1 Sample Form for Tracking Hazard Corrections
  • Appendix 8-2 Disciplinary system Worksheet
  • Appendix 8-3 Developing General Workplace Safety and Health Rules
  • Appendix 8-4 Examples of Several-Step Disciplinary Systems
  • Chapter 9 - CATCHING THE HAZARDS THAT ESCAPE CONTROLS
    • Introduction
    • Regular Site Inspections
      • What Do We Mean by Regular Site Inspections?
      • Inspection Frequency
      • What Should Be Inspected
      • Who Should Inspect
      • What Training Should Inspectors Have
      • Written Inspection Reports
      • Tracking Corrections of Hazards
    • Employee Reports of Hazards
      • Company Policy
      • Timely and Appropriate Response and Action
      • Tracking Hazard Corrections
      • Protection from Harassment
      • Reporting Systems
    • Accident/Incident Investigation
      • Definitions
      • What Should Be Investigated?
      • Who Should Investigate?
      • Training for Accident/Incident Investigation
      • Results Desired
      • Use of Accident/Incident Investigations
    • Analysis of Patterns
      • Pattern Analysis of the OSHA Log of Injury an Illness
      • Pattern analysis of Inspection Records and Employee Hazard Reports
    • Summary
  • Appendix 9-1 Suggested Inspection Inventory for Use in Developing Inspection Guidelines or Checklists
  • Appendix 9-2 Sample Policy for Employee Reporting of Hazards
  • Appendix 9-3 Suggested Forms for Employee Reporting of Hazards
  • Appendix 9-4 Hazard Analysis Flow Charts
  • Chapter 10 - ESTABLISHING THE RIGHT MEDICAL PROGRAM FOR YOUR WORKSITE: THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH DELIVERY SYSTEM
    • Introduction
    • Who Should Manage the OHDS?
    • What Services Do You Need from Your OHDS?
    • The Range of OHDS Functions
      • Preventing Hazards
      • Early Recognition and Treatment
      • Limiting Severity
    • Summary
  • Appendix 10-1 Examples of Occupational Health Delivery Systems
  • Appendix 10-2 Recordkeeping
  • Appendix 10-3 Qualifications of OHDS Personnel
  • Appendix 10-4 Evaluating the Qualifications of Health Care Professionals
  • Appendix 10-5 Protocols: Established Standardized Procedures
  • Chapter 11 - SAFETY AND HEALTH TRAINING
    • Introduction
    • Design
      • First Things First: Commitment and Involvement
      • Teaching and Learning Principles
      • Identifying Training Needs
      • Developing Learning Activities
    • Some Common Types of Specialized Training
      • Safety and Health Training for Managers
      • Safety and Health Training for Supervisors
      • Job Orientation
      • Vehicular Safety
      • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
      • Emergency Response
      • Periodic Safety and Health Training
    • Conducting the Training
    • Evaluation
    • Recordkeeping
    • Sources of Assistance
    • Summary
  • Appendix 11-1 Employee Training Record
  • Chapter 12 - EVALUATING YOUR SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM
    • Introduction
    • What Should Be Evaluated?
    • Who Should Evaluate?
    • Tools for Collecting Information Used in Evaluation
      • Documentation
      • Interviews
      • Review of Site Conditions
    • Do Program Activities Get Results?
      • Activities and Procedures
      • Objectives
      • Goal
      • Evaluation Judgments
    • How To Use the Evaluation
      • Larger Worksites
      • Smaller Worksites
    • Summary
  • Appendix 12-1 Example of a Self-Evaluation Checklist for Small Businesses
  • Appendix 12-2 Tools for a Safety and Health Program Assessment
  • Appendix 12-3 Sample from an Evaluation Instruction